The Dollar Decade: Mammon and the Machine in 1920s America

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The Immigration Act of limited immigration to a fraction proportionate to that ethnic group in the United States in The goal was to freeze the pattern of European ethnic composition, and to exclude almost all Asians. Hispanics were not restricted. Australia, New Zealand and Canada also sharply restricted or ended Asian immigration. Other laws curbed immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Progressive movement gradually caused local communities in many parts of Western Europe and North America to tighten restrictions of vice activities, particularly gambling, alcohol, and narcotics though splinters of this same movement were also involved in racial segregation in the U.

This movement gained its strongest traction in the U. Constitution and the associated Volstead Act which made illegal the manufacture, import and sale of beer, wine and hard liquor though drinking was technically not illegal. The laws were specifically promoted by evangelical Protestant churches and the Anti-Saloon League to reduce drunkenness, petty crime, wife abuse, corrupt saloon-politics, and in , Germanic influences. The KKK was an active supporter in rural areas, but cities generally left enforcement to a small number of federal officials.

The various restrictions on alcohol and gambling were widely unpopular leading to rampant and flagrant violations of the law, and consequently to a rapid rise of organized crime around the nation as typified by Chicago's Al Capone. The continuation of legal alcohol production in Canada soon led to a new industry in smuggling liquor into the U. Speakeasies were illegal bars selling beer and liquor after paying off local police and government officials. They operated with connections to organized crime and liquor smuggling. While the U. Federal Government agents raided such establishments and arrested many of the small figures and smugglers, they rarely managed to get the big bosses; the business of running speakeasies was so lucrative that such establishments continued to flourish throughout the nation.

In major cities, speakeasies could often be elaborate, offering food, live bands, and floor shows. Police were notoriously bribed by speakeasy operators to either leave them alone or at least give them advance notice of any planned raid. The Roaring Twenties was a period of literary creativity, and works of several notable authors appeared during the period. Lawrence 's novel Lady Chatterley's Lover was a scandal at the time because of its explicit descriptions of sex. Books that take the s as their subject include:.

He had a single-engine airplane, the " Spirit of St. His flight took The president of France bestowed on him the French Legion of Honor and, on his arrival back in the United States, a fleet of warships and aircraft escorted him to Washington, D. The Roaring Twenties was the breakout decade for sports across the modern world. Citizens from all parts of the country flocked to see the top athletes of the day compete in arenas and stadia. Their exploits were loudly and highly praised in the new "gee whiz" style of sports journalism that was emerging; champions of this style of writing included the legendary writers Grantland Rice and Damon Runyon in the U.

Sports literature presented a new form of heroism departing from the traditional models of masculinity. High school and junior high school students were offered to play sports that they hadn't been able to play in the past. Several sports, such as golf , that had previously been unavailable to the middle-class finally became available. Also, a notable motorsports feat was accomplished in Roaring Twenties as driver Henry Seagrave , driving his car the Golden Arrow , reaches at the time in a record speed of Following the Latin American Games in Rio de Janeiro, IOC officials toured the region, helping countries establish national Olympic committees and prepare for future competition.

In some countries, such as Brazil, sporting and political rivalries hindered progress as opposing factions battled for control of the international sport. The Olympic Games in Paris and the games in Amsterdam saw greatly increased participation from Latin American athletes. Sports journalism, modernity, and nationalism excited Egypt. Egyptians of all classes were captivated by news of the Egyptian national soccer team's performance in international competitions.

Success or failure in the Olympics of and was more than a betting opportunity but became an index of Egyptian independence and a desire to be seen as modern by Europe. Egyptians also saw these competitions as a way to distinguish themselves from the traditionalism of the rest of Africa. The Greek government of Eleftherios Venizelos initiated a number of programs involving physical education in the public schools and raised the profile of sports competition. Other Balkan nations also became more involved in sports and participated in several precursors of the Balkan Games, competing sometimes with Western European teams.

The Balkan Games, first held in Athens in as an experiment, proved a sporting and a diplomatic success. From the beginning, the games, held in Greece through , sought to improve relations among Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Albania. As a political and diplomatic event, the games worked in conjunction with an annual Balkan Conference, which resolved issues between these often-feuding nations.

The results were quite successful; officials from all countries routinely praised the games' athletes and organizers. During a period of persistent and systematic efforts to create rapprochement and unity in the region, this series of athletic meetings played a key role. The most popular American athlete of the s was baseball player Babe Ruth.

His characteristic home-run hitting heralded a new epoch in the history of the sport the " Live-ball era " , and his high style of living fascinated the nation and made him one of the highest-profile figures of the decade. Fans were enthralled in when Ruth hit 60 home runs, setting a new single-season home run record that was not broken until Together with another up-and-coming star named Lou Gehrig , Ruth laid the foundation of future New York Yankees dynasties.

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A former bar room brawler named Jack Dempsey , also known as The Manassa Mauler, won the world heavyweight boxing title and became the most celebrated pugilist of his time. College football captivated fans, with notables such as Red Grange , running back of the University of Illinois, and Knute Rockne who coached Notre Dame's football program to great success on the field and nationwide notoriety. Grange also played a role in the development of professional football in the mids by signing on with the NFL 's Chicago Bears.

Bill Tilden thoroughly dominated his competition in tennis, cementing his reputation as one of the greatest tennis players of all time. And Bobby Jones popularized golf with his spectacular successes on the links. During the 19th century vices such as gambling, alcohol, and narcotics had been popular throughout the United States in spite of not always being technically legal. Enforcement against these vices had always been spotty. Indeed, most major cities established red-light districts to regulate gambling and prostitution despite the fact that these vices were typically illegal.

However, with the rise of the Progressive Movement in the early 20th century, laws gradually became tighter with most gambling, alcohol, and narcotics outlawed by the s. Because of widespread public opposition to these prohibitions, especially alcohol, a great economic opportunity was created for criminal enterprises. Organized crime blossomed during this era, particularly the American Mafia. Notable examples include Miami, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Many of these criminal enterprises would long outlast the roaring twenties and ultimately were instrumental in establishing Las Vegas as a gambling center.

Weimar culture was the flourishing of the arts and sciences that flourished in Germany during the Weimar Republic , from until Adolf Hitler 's rise to power in Although not part of Germany, German-speaking Austria, and particularly Vienna, is often included as part of Weimar culture. Its goal of unifying art, craft, and technology became influential worldwide, especially in architecture. Germany, and Berlin in particular, was fertile ground for intellectuals, artists, and innovators from many fields.

The social environment was chaotic, and politics were passionate. German university faculties became universally open to Jewish scholars in Nine German citizens were awarded Nobel prizes during the Weimar Republic, five of whom were Jewish scientists, including two in medicine. Sport took on a new importance as the human body became a focus that pointed away from the heated rhetoric of standard politics.

The new emphasis reflected the search for freedom by young Germans alienated from rationalized work routines. The s saw dramatic innovations in American political campaign techniques, based especially on new advertising methods that had worked so well selling war bonds during the First World War. Governor James M. Cox of Ohio, the Democratic Party candidate, made a whirlwind campaign that took him to rallies, train station speeches, and formal addresses, reaching audiences totaling perhaps 2,, people.

It resembled the William Jennings Bryan campaign of Harding of Ohio relied upon a " Front Porch Campaign ". It brought , voters to Marion, Ohio, where Harding spoke from his home. Hays used national advertising in a major way with advice from adman Albert Lasker.

The theme was Harding's own slogan "America First". Thus the Republican advertisement in Collier's Magazine for October 30, , demanded, "Let's be done with wiggle and wobble. Its next President will remain in our own country," and "We decided long ago that we objected to a foreign government of our people. This single station could be heard over most of the Eastern United States by the small percentage of the population that had radio receivers.

Calvin Coolidge was inaugurated as president after the sudden death of President Warren G. Harding in ; he was re-elected in in a landslide against a divided opposition. Coolidge made use of the new medium of radio and made radio history several times while president: his inauguration was the first presidential inauguration broadcast on radio; on 12 February , he became the first American president to deliver a political speech on radio.

Herbert Hoover was elected president in Unions grew very rapidly during the war but after a series of failed major strikes in steel, meatpacking and other industries, a long decade of decline weakened most unions and membership fell even as employment grew rapidly. Radical unionism virtually collapsed, in large part because of Federal repression during World War I by means of the Espionage Act of and the Sedition Act of The major unions supported the third party candidacy of Robert La Follette in The s marked a period of sharp decline for the labor movement.

Union membership and activities fell sharply in the face of economic prosperity, a lack of leadership within the movement, and anti-union sentiments from both employers and the government.

The unions were much less able to organize strikes. In contrast, witnessed about , workers or 1. The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of social activism and political reform that flourished from the s to the s. The politics of the s was unfriendly toward the labor unions and liberal crusaders against business, so many if not all historians who emphasize those themes write off the decade. Urban cosmopolitan scholars recoiled at the moralism of prohibition and the intolerance of the nativists of the Ku Klux Klan KKK , and denounced the era.

Historian Richard Hofstadter , for example, in wrote that prohibition, "was a pseudo-reform, a pinched, parochial substitute for reform" that "was carried about America by the rural-evangelical virus". Link emphasized, the progressives did not simply roll over and play dead.

Palmer, pointing to people like George Norris, say, "It is worth noting that progressivism, whilst temporarily losing the political initiative, remained popular in many western states and made its presence felt in Washington during both the Harding and Coolidge presidencies. What historians have identified as "business progressivism", with its emphasis on efficiency and typified by Henry Ford and Herbert Hoover [] reached an apogee in the s.

Reynold M. Wik, for example, argues that Ford's "views on technology and the mechanization of rural America were generally enlightened, progressive, and often far ahead of his times. Tindall stresses the continuing importance of the Progressive movement in the South in the s involving increased democracy, efficient government, corporate regulation, social justice, and governmental public service. Historians of women and of youth emphasize the strength of the progressive impulse in the s.

Paul Fass, speaking of youth, wrote "Progressivism as an angle of vision, as an optimistic approach to social problems, was very much alive. There is general agreement that the Progressive era was over by , especially since a majority of the remaining progressives opposed the New Deal.

The federal government spent most of the decade disengaged from the economy and focused on paying off the large debts amassed during the war and during the era of railway over expansion. After the booming wheat economy of the early part of the century, the prairie provinces were troubled by low wheat prices. This played an important role in the development of Canada's first highly successful third political party, the Progressive Party of Canada that won the second most seats in the national election. As well with the creation of the Balfour Declaration of , Canada achieved with other British former colonies autonomy, forming the British Commonwealth.

The Dow Jones Industrial Stock Index had continued its upward move for weeks, and coupled with heightened speculative activities, it gave an illusion that the bull market of to would last forever. The events in the United States added to a worldwide depression , later called the Great Depression , that put millions of people out of work around the world throughout the s. The 21st Amendment , which repealed the 18th Amendment , was proposed on February 20, The choice to legalize alcohol was left up to the states, and many states quickly took this opportunity to allow alcohol.

Prohibition was officially ended with the ratification of the Amendment on December 5, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Dollar Decade : Mammon and the Machine in s America -

For other uses, see Roaring Twenties disambiguation. For the similar cultural period in Germany, see Golden Twenties. Josephine Baker performing the Charleston. Further information: Cars in the s. Further information: History of penicillin. Main article: Women's suffrage. Main article: Lost Generation.

Main article: Social issues of the s in the United States. Main article: Art Deco. Further information: Weimar culture. Further information: Cinema of the United States. Further information: s in film. Further information: Pre-Code Hollywood. Main article: Harlem Renaissance. Further information: Jazz Age and Jazz. Main article: Flapper. Further information: s in Western fashion.

Further information: List of lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender-related films of the s. Main article: Prohibition in the United States. Prohibition era song recorded by Thomas Edison studio, Duration See also: American Mafia. See also: United States presidential election. Main article: Progressive Era. Main article: Wall Street Crash of Men, sex and social change in s Britain. Hehn Retrieved US: Ford. American Heritage. Detroit News.

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Arcadia Publishing. AMPS Newsletter. Association of Motion Picture Sound. Archived from the original on Retrieved December 12, Retrieved 28 April Paine and the earliest surviving clinical records of penicillin therapy".

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Medical History. British Medical Journal Clinical research ed. Flink, "Three stages of American automobile consciousness. Jakle, and Keith A. Sculle, Fast food: Roadside restaurants in the automobile age American History USA. Retrieved November 10, International encyclopedia of women's suffrage Abc-Clio Inc, Sign in with your eLibrary Card close.

Flag as Inappropriate. Email this Article. Jazz Age. Reich, and Lois Fichner-Rathus.

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Allen, Frederick Lewis Praeger Publishers, Dumenil, Lynn. Hill and Wang, Fass; Paula. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the s. Oxford University Press, David E. Greenwood Press, Lynd, Robert S. Harcourt, Brace and World, Famous sociological study of Muncie, Indiana, in the s.

Mowry; George E. Norton, Alcohol prohibition. Constitution 21st Amendment U. Pre s s s post Bibliography of jazz Pre s s s s s s s s s.